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Nuclear Power Information
Measures against Potential Natural Disasters

  • Countermeasures against Severe Accidents
  • Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Evacuation Plan
  • Maintenance and Improvement of Emergency Response Capabilities

Nuclear emergency preparedness and response of licenses in Japan have been taken continuously all out efforts against nuclear emergency for further enhancing nuclear safety coordinating with the central and local government formulated on the bases of relevant acts such Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures and Act on Special Measures Concerning.

Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and response plan

Off site emergency zones and distances

To ensure effective protective actions and other responses can be promptly implemented to protect public, off site emergency zones and distances around the nuclear facilities are identified in advance during the preparedness stages referred to the guideline on nuclear emergency preparedness.

<PAZ(Precautionary Action Zone)
An approx. 5km radius area from a nuclear facility for initiation of provisional protective actions before the start of a release warranting protective actions off the site depend on Emergency Action Level (EAL, nuclear facility condition) in order to prevent and mitigate stochastic effect.
<UPZ(Urgent Protective action Planning Zone)
An approx. 5to30km radius area from a nuclear facility for initiation of urgent protective actions such distributing KI tablets and shelter in peace before or shortly after the start of a release of radioactive material warranting protective actions off the site depend on EAL and Operation Intervention Level(OIL, air radiation dose or contamination, etc.)

Priority Areas for Nuclear Disaster Prevention Measures

(Note) The actual boundary of the zones for which protective actions, including evacuation, sheltering and stable iodine prophylaxis, are implemented based on the EAL and OIL does not necessarily form a circle.

Reference: Guideline on Nuclear Emergency Prevention Measures (established by Nuclear Regulation Authority on October 31, 2012)

UPZ Municipalities

  Fukui Kyoto Shiga Gifu
Mihama Power Station -Mihama-cho
-Tsuruga city
-Obama city
-Echizen city
-Takashima city
-Nagahama city
Takahama Power Station -Takahama-cho
-Obama city
-Maizuru city
-Ayabe city
-Nantan city
-Miyazu city
-Fukuchiyama city
-Takashima city
Ohi Power Station -Ohi-cho
-Obama city
-Kyoto city
-Maizuru city
-Ayabe city
-Nantan city
-Takashima city

Protective actions based on EAL and OIL

A basis for taking protective actions to reduce and mitigate radiation exposure of local residents and workers has been established in advance so that judgment and instructions for protective actions can be made immediately.
Specific protective actions will be judged to implement by the Nuclear Regulation Authority according to the situation and instructions will be given by the National Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters.

Emergency Action Level
EAL detemined by plant parameters in each plants and other cirmcumstances is used for declaration of emergency classification as AL,SE and GE for the initiations of public protective actions.
Operational Intervention Level
An OIL is used immediately and directly (without further assessment) to determine the appropriate protective actions on the basis of an environmental measurement. OILs are typically expressed in terms of dose rates or of activity of radioactive material released, time integrated air concentration, ground or surface concentration or activity concentrations of radionuclides in environmental food or water samples.

Protective actions based on EAL and OIL

Emergency classification and EAL example
  • -An earthquake of -6 or higher Seismic intensity in the located area
  • -Major tsunami warning forecasted in the host prefecture
Site Area
  • -Percial loss of ECCS function in LOCA
  • -Station blackout (for 30 minutes or longer duration)
  • -Loss of all ECCS function in LOCA
  • -Over 5μSv/h air dose rate in the site boundary (10 minutes or longer duration)
OIL description
OIL1 Criteria for evacuation Execute evacuation by designating the evacuation area within a few hours
OIL4 Criteria for surface decontamination Provide screening of evacuees and decontamination for those exceeding the criteria
OIL2 Criteria for temporary relocation Designate the evacuation area in about a day and perform temporary relocation within a week
Food and water screening criteria Criteria specific to the area measuring radionuclide concentrations of food and water samples Designate the area that measures radionuclide concentrations of food and drink within a few days

Measure radionuclide concentrations in food and water samples within a week and provide ingestion limits on those exceeding the criteria

OIL6 Criteria for ingestion limits

Reference: Guideline on Nuclear Prevention

Communication scheme in Nuclear Emergency

In the event of nuclear emergency, a licensee immediately notifies it to the central and local governments. The representatives from the central government, relevant prefectures, municipalities and licensee joint together at the Off-site Center and discuss to determine the protective measures according to information exchange and situations. The decisions made at the Off-site Center will be transmitted to local residents through the Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters operated by individual municipalities.

Communication in the Event of a Nuclear Accident